Economic evaluation of the first import anti-dumpi

2022-10-20
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Economic evaluation of China's first import anti-dumping measures

in 1997, China adopted anti-dumping measures against imported paper for the first time in accordance with the law. This marks that China has changed from passively responding to foreign anti-dumping litigation to actively applying international trade rules, and has become an important turning point for China to adopt anti-dumping theory and practice in international trade. At present, China's first import anti-dumping measures have expired, so what is the economic effect of China's import anti-dumping measures? In the later stage of trade and industrial evolution, the government should seek to maximize the social benefits of anti-dumping measures according to the different weights of consumer interests, tariffs and taxes, and producer interests. While strengthening the protection, we should also pay attention to the protection of social public interests. Because the related industries directly damaged by dumping are partial after all, and the social public interest is related to the experimental frequency: 0.5 (5) Hz; Overall interests

I. antidumping measures' industrial relief in China -- Analysis and evaluation methods

1 The legality of anti-dumping measures

with the reduction of tariffs and non-tariff barriers, especially the restrictions on the use of import restrictive measures such as quotas and licenses, anti-dumping has gradually evolved into one of the most widely used important means to maintain a fair trade environment and resist unfair competition in the world. The WTO agreement stipulates that dumping refers to the entry of a member's goods into the market of the importing country at a price lower than the normal value of its domestic trade. Take anti-dumping measures for dumped products that do exist dumping and thus cause damage to the imported domestic industry, such as imposing anti-dumping duties, or reaching a price commitment to limit low prices between the government of the importing country and the exporter, so as to prevent further damage to the domestic industry caused by dumped products. Therefore, anti-dumping measures are a relief means allowed by the WTO organization to protect domestic industries and resist unfair competition, It is a legal right granted by the WTO to the importing countries to protect themselves. It is almost eternal to insist that the appearance of the mold is in a clean form

only when the relevant rules of the WTO are translated into domestic law, can anti-dumping measures show the rationality of its institutional arrangements and the normality of legal application. In March, 1997, China promulgated the "anti dumping and countervailing regulations". On December 10, 1997, China launched an anti-dumping investigation on imported paper, and imposed final anti-dumping duties on imported paper originating in Canada, South Korea and the United States. This is China's first import anti-dumping investigation. With the launch of China's anti-dumping practice and its successful accession to the WTO, China revised and implemented the "anti dumping regulations" again in early 2002, which marks that China's legal weapons for protecting national industries are more scientific, efficient and fair

2. The short-term and long-term effects of anti-dumping measures on China's trade remedy

from the perspective of economics, a country's imposition of tariffs on imported products can increase the price of imported products and reduce the quantity of imports. However, anti-dumping measures are temporary protective measures. Before each imposition of anti-dumping duties or price commitments, there are also procedures including application, filing, investigation, preliminary determination and final determination. After the imposition of anti-dumping duties, there are also interim review, New Shipper review and final review (usually referred to as "sunset review"), which is a quite complex process, It has a great impact on the price and quantity of imported products. Therefore, the analysis of the impact of anti-dumping duties on imported products and domestic related industries should not only consider the short-term effects, but also study the long-term effects. We divide the process of implementing anti-dumping measures into pre filing period, investigation and preliminary determination period, final ruling period and review period, and study the short-term and long-term effects of anti-dumping measures on imported products and domestic related industries by studying the changes in the price and quantity of imported products in different periods

3. The impact of anti-dumping tax rates and differential treatment on imported products

similar to foreign anti-dumping investigations, China's imposition of anti-dumping tariffs on imported products is also to formulate anti-dumping tax rates with differential treatment for different enterprises in different countries, which has different effects on these countries and enterprises. We study the impact of anti-dumping tariffs and differential treatment on imported products and domestic industries through a comparative analysis of the high and low anti-dumping tariffs and differential treatment applied by enterprises in Canada, the United States and South Korea to China's paper exports

4. Circumvention in anti-dumping measures and the subsequent impact of public interest issues

anti dumping circumvention refers to the methods and behaviors of one country's goods being levied anti-dumping duties by another country, and the exporting country reducing or avoiding the imposition of anti-dumping duties through forms and means in line with the provisions of the law. It also refers to the trade transfer of similar goods after the imposition of anti-dumping duties by another country, The act of a third country exporting dumped goods to a country taking anti-dumping measures instead of the exporting country subject to anti-dumping duties. Anti dumping "public interest" refers to that when adopting the determination of dumping margin, industrial injury standard and anti-dumping measures, we should not only consider the injured domestic industrial interests, but also pay attention to and consider the public interests, especially the interests of consumers and users (including intermediate producers). China's anti-dumping measures against imported paper also involve evasion and public interest issues, which we analyze and evaluate together

Second, the characteristics of the object of empirical research

we choose paper as the research object. The main reason is that it is an imported commodity for which China has taken anti-dumping measures for the first time. In addition, paper also has a great economic role. The economic effect of anti-dumping measures can be clearly reflected from the paper industry

the paper industry is an important part of the paper industry and a large variety in the paper industry. Both the international pulp and paper magazine and the FAO Yearbook list the output of paper separately from the total output of paper and paperboard. Paper industry is an important industry closely related to the development of national economy and the construction of social civilization. It is different from the general consumer goods industry. It is a basic raw material industry with technology, capital, resources and energy intensive, significant economies of scale, and continuous and efficient production. Its industrial relevance is large, involving forestry, agriculture, machinery manufacturing, chemical industry, thermoelectricity, transportation, environmental protection and other industries, It has a certain pulling effect on the economy of upstream and downstream industries. The production level of paper generally reflects the development level of a country's paper industry

The paper industry is the pillar industry of China's paper industry. Paper is the basic raw material of national newspapers and periodicals. Paper is essential for the publishing industry, and there is no alternative product for paper. In China, paper is listed as a national strategic material. The paper industry is related to the strategic security of the party and the country, and plays an important role in the whole national economy. With the marketization of China's price mechanism, the price of the paper industry has gradually transitioned from national pricing to market pricing

III. the dumping of imported paper and its impact in the advance of anti-dumping measures

according to China's customs statistics, from 1996 to 1997, Canada, South Korea and the United States exported a large number of paper to China. In 1996, the export of paper from Canada, South Korea and the United States to China increased by 7.4 times, 156 times and 13.4 times respectively compared with 1995; In 1997, the export of paper from the above three countries to China increased by 54%, 31% and 16% respectively over 1996. In 1996, the export volume of the above three countries to China was 56.47% of China's total import volume; In 1997, it increased to 61.75%. Therefore, from 1996 to 1997, the total import volume from other countries was less than that of Canada, South Korea and the United States

Canada, South Korea and the United States continue to reduce prices in order to gain more market share while exporting a lot to China. According to the announcement issued by the former Ministry of foreign trade and economic cooperation, in 1996, the price of paper exported by Canada, South Korea and the United States to China decreased by 9.7%, 36.6% and 30.1% respectively compared with 1995. In 1997, the price of paper exported by Canada, South Korea and the United States to China decreased by 10.8%, 7.8% and 3 respectively compared with 1996. Countersunk screws should not protrude from the surface of parts by 15.3%

due to the violent impact of a large number of paper exports from Canada, South Korea and the United States to China, it has a serious impact on China's domestic industry, which is specifically reflected in the business indicators of nine domestic paper mills such as Jilin paper company, which is a representative of the industry: (1) the output of the domestic paper industry shrank sharply, and the total output in 1997 was 154932 tons less than that in 1996, a decrease of 20%. (2) Sales volume and sales revenue decreased. In 1997, the total sales volume of nine paper enterprises decreased by 22% compared with 1996; The total sales revenue decreased by 26% compared with 1996. (3) Prices were forced to fall sharply. In 1997, the sales price of domestic paper enterprises fell by 9.1% compared with 1996. (4) Inventory soared. In 1996, the inventory of nine domestic paper enterprises increased by 417% compared with 1995. At the end of 1997, the inventory increased by 175% compared with 1996. (5) The operating rate is seriously insufficient, and the production capacity is largely idle. In 1997, the average operating rate of nine domestic paper enterprises was only 67.8%, down 27% from 1996. Due to the impact of the low price of imported paper, the profits of the domestic paper industry have declined, and most of them have fallen into a serious loss situation. The domestic paper industry is seriously short of jass 14 (9) 6, the opening wall project, and has fallen into a state of comprehensive loss. As a result, the unemployment rate and the number of unemployed people in the domestic paper industry have increased significantly, and the average wage level of employed people is declining day by day

in view of this, on November 10, 1997, nine paper enterprises, on behalf of China's paper industry, applied to the former Ministry of foreign trade and economic cooperation and the former State Economic and Trade Commission for anti-dumping investigation of paper originating in Canada, South Korea and the United States. On December 10, 1997, China launched an anti-dumping investigation; On July 9, 1998, the preliminary determination of the anti-dumping investigation on paper originating in Canada, South Korea and the United States; On June 3, 1999, the final anti-dumping ruling was made, and it was decided to impose an anti-dumping duty of 9% - 78% on imported paper originating in Canada, South Korea and the United States

IV. the impact of anti-dumping measures on China's paper industry and its analysis

in view of the reality of domestic paper enterprises, the state decided to initiate an anti-dumping investigation on imported paper. After the anti-dumping investigation began, the import price of paper stopped the downward trend and began to rise. According to China's customs statistics, the average import price of paper from the above three countries rose from the lowest point of 480.5 US dollars/ton in 1997 to 607.2 US dollars/ton in 1998, an increase of 26.4%. The average import price rose from the lowest point of 478.5 US dollars/ton in 1997 to 594.8 US dollars/ton in 1998, an increase of 24.3%. Canada, South Korea and the United States have basically stopped a large number of low-cost dumping of paper, and anti-dumping has created a fair market environment for the development of domestic paper enterprises

more importantly, after the Chinese government adopted anti-dumping measures, domestic paper enterprises especially cherish the fair market competition environment created by anti-dumping, and take advantage of the favorable opportunity of the significant reduction of import volume after anti-dumping to take measures to improve their competitiveness, such as large-scale technological transformation, improving product quality, improving management level, etc

1. Analysis of the short-term and long-term effects of anti-dumping on export products

whether it is the overall situation of China's paper imports or the national situation, the short-term and long-term effects of anti-dumping measures on imported paper can be achieved by analyzing the relationship between the import volume of paper and anti-dumping measures. The relationship between paper import volume and anti-dumping measures is shown in the following three stages:

(1) the rapid growth stage of trade volume before import anti-dumping investigation

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